Wednesday, 23 October 2013

Learning to Dance the Pow wow: Stepping in time with Terrance Goodwill

Terrance Goodwill
The Great Grass Dancer Terrance Goodwill came to the University of Manitoba to teach a class (EDUA 1500 Aboriginal Education) about the great culture that he loves and supports. He was there on Oct 1, 2013 with Education teacher candidates who are training to become teachers and who will most likely be confronted with the need to address Aboriginal issues within the classroom, because even in Winnipeg many of the students will be First Nation and Métis.   

Taken from StatsCanada. The Aboriginal population living in Winnipeg is much younger than the non-Aboriginal population. In 2006, the median age4 of the Aboriginal population in Winnipeg was 26 years, compared to 40 years for the non-Aboriginal population.
In 2006, about half (49%) of the Aboriginal population was under the age of 25, compared to 30% of non-Aboriginal people. Furthermore, only 4% of Aboriginal people were 65 years and over, compared to 14% of the non-Aboriginal population. Three in 10 (30%) Aboriginal people in Winnipeg were children under the age of 15, compared to 17% of their non-Aboriginal counterparts (see chart 1). For more details on the age distribution, see table 1 in the appendix.
Aboriginal children aged 14 years and under represented 17% of the census metropolitan area's children. Just over a third (36%) of the First Nations population was 14 years of age and under. Similarly, children in this age group comprised a third of the Inuit population (33%). For the Métis population, about a quarter (27%) were aged 14 and under.
2006 Aboriginal Population Profile for Winnipeg

 The words Great are used because as the video demonstrates Terrance was able to use teaching techniques so naturally and involved each of the students in what he was doing. Also the students had a good time, but also learned about the history of these dances. These classes are excellent in both social studies as well as physical education because students must move, but also understand the historical changes going on in First Nations communities and the movement from celebrations to powwow from spiritual to more commercial aspects of modern culture.  Teachings like this make for greater cultural understanding, but also cross cultural competency and make the learning of students more relevant.
George Councillor, & Freeman White were the singers. 


  1. We have reached a tipping point in Canada where our younger generation is in desperate need of learning more about aboriginal history (values, culture, residential schools) regardless of whether they are aboriginal or not. The initial steps have been taken and aboriginal dance education can further help with this process. Dance can be a great tool for teaching culture as it is deep rooted in tradition, yet can be adapted to give it a more modern feel. An example would be that when Terrance Goodwill was dancing he demonstrated a move that was inspired by Michael Jackson’s moonwalk.

    Judith Lynne Hanna’s 1999 book, Partnering Dance and Education discusses the benefits of teaching dance in the school. Here is a list of ten benefits:

    1) Dance education aids the development of kinesthetic intelligence.
    2) Dance education creates opportunities for self-expression and communication within the constraints of the medium of the body.
    3) Dance, whether representational, thematic, or abstract, is a repository of civilization that changes through time.
    4) Dance education teaches the values and skills of creativity, problem solving, risk taking, making judgments in the absence of rules, and higher-order thinking skills.
    5) Dance provides an opportunity for students to recognize that there are multiple solutions to problems.
    6) The study of dance fosters an individual’s ability to better interpret interpersonal nonverbal communication.
    7) Learning the dances of other cultures helps students to develop an understanding and respect for them.
    8) Through stimulating all the senses, dance goes beyond verbal language in engaging dancers and promoting the development of multisensory beings.
    9) Dance enhances an individual’s lifelong quality of life.
    10) Dance education helps students develop physical fitness, appreciation of the body, concern for sound health practices, and effective stress management approaches.

    Coming from a physical education background, I can see how incorporating aboriginal dance will be incredibly beneficial to my students. It is very engaging for the students and like Terrance demonstrated, all you need is someone to lead the dance, and the students will follow. There are opportunities for students to either create their own dance or learn one of the traditional dances. Overall, the benefits of dance are substantial and teaching dances from different cultures will allow students to experience cultures in an engaging and kinesthetic manner.

  2. Terrance Goodwill shared knowledge into the Aboriginal culture to our class. As a generalist teacher in the middle year’s stream I feel that it would be very beneficial to my future students to learn this. It would be valuable to be able to integrate this into the curriculum throughout ELA, Social Studies and Physical Education. Reading these statistics and knowing my practicum classroom I realize that we as teacher candidates need to learn how to integrate these teachings into our classrooms. We need to be able to understand and respect the cultural traditions of Aboriginal people. Robert states in a post that the ‘students had a good time’ and yes we sure did, but is that enough to be able to teach that rich history and culture? Am I, as a ‘non-Aboriginal’ teacher able to delve into the tradition and values that Terrance imparted on our class?
    Middle year’s learners are alone diverse and when there is cultural diversity added it allows a teacher to use inclusive techniques when addressing diversity in a classroom. For example, Jennifer Katz Universal design for Learning adapts Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences and addresses diversity through differentiation and integration. Students should “learn, play and grow together in celebration of their diversity, not in spite of it.”(Katz, 2012) Inclusion is action for the teachers to inspire their students to come together as a socially, and culturally community of learners. This is education that allows all students to learn and develop in the classroom no matter the challenges.
    I think that as an educator I have to continually reflect on my teaching and learning and adapt to the students in my class. I know that I have to be critical and reflective on my pedagogy as a teacher. Many challenges have occurred when addressing cultural diversity in education and I am certain there will be many more but I believe that if we as educators truly do want success for all learners then it will happen with the goal “to inspire and empower our children and youth as they learn to understand, negotiate and transform the world around them.” (Zine, 2005)
    Katz, Jennifer (2012) Teaching to Diversity; The Three-Block Model of Universal Design for Learning, Winnipeg: Portage and Main Press
    Zine, Jasmine (2005) Inclusive schooling in a plural society: Removing the margins. ATA Magazine 85(4), 12-17.

  3. Learning the different aspects of Aboriginal culture is very beneficial to any starting teacher. Now that there is a younger Aboriginal population there means that there will be more Aboriginals in the school system. Educators need to be aware of the background of their students to help them better succeed in schools which will translate to a greater chance of success later on in life. There are programs in place that allow students to learn about Aboriginal culture, for example in the Winnipeg School Division. This program is for both Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals. The program is designed to allow students to “develop an understanding and respect for the histories, cultures, and contemporary lifestyles of Aboriginal peoples” (“Winnipeg School Division”, 2013). This is a great program and opportunity for students but I believe that it is important for every teacher to have a basic knowledge of Aboriginal culture so that they can teach it within their own classrooms. Perhaps then the teacher could even incorporate some of the Aboriginal teachings into their everyday classes. Having the opportunity for someone like Terrance Goodwill to come into the class and teach the knowledge firsthand is ideal. It allows for a much richer experience for the students and a deeper kind of learning.
    Aboriginal education is a topic that is under a lot of examination in Manitoba. It is a current and relevant topic and one that we, as future teachers, need to take into consideration and decide how we will be prepared for it. With a younger generation of Aboriginal people, and these young people attending schools, Aboriginal education among teachers becomes quite important. We need to prepare the teachers for what will face them when they enter the workforce and having an understanding of Aboriginal culture is a way to be better prepared for our future careers as teachers.

  4. An eye-opening experience this class has been! I have never attended a pow wow, nor have seen pow wow dancing in real life, but just the other day we invited The Great Grass Dancer Terrance Goodwill to teach us Aboriginal dance. He first showed us his most impressive dance, and then toned it down so we could also dance and keep in time with his jumps and twirls. We all had lots of fun while getting exercise and learning about the traditional dances. The drums were equally fantastic as they kept us all in beat. It was an overall enjoyable experience that I would like to do again someday.
    I find it incredibly interesting how stories can be told through dance. I’ve had similar experiences when taking a Hawaiian dance class; a whole legend or history can be told through movement.
    Aboriginal dancing could be used in a school setting, integrating physical education, aboriginal education and social studies. I hope in the future I can get a dancer like him to teach my students how to dance and the history behind such dances in the future. I wonder how different or similar aboriginal dances across Canada are.
    I find the statistics on the increasing population of aboriginal students interesting. This means we must put greater emphasis on Aboriginal education in our classrooms. We have an increasing chance that we will have students from this background in our classrooms, all of whom need to feel included and valued. If I find myself in a classroom full of children from Aboriginal backgrounds, I hope I will be able to teach with an Aboriginal perspective. In the same breath, however, even if my classroom does not have any students from an Aboriginal background, I can see the value in presenting Aboriginal issues and hope to include Aboriginal perspectives.

  5. The class when Terrance Goodwill and his drummers visited is my favourite class of the year so far. For a long time I have loved watching Aboriginal dancers and have had many opportunity to watch a demonstration. More recently I have visited Aboriginal land and museums in Washington State and Saskatchewan. Most recently, on a road trip this summer my friends and I spent close to a week in North and South Dakota and had the pleasure of spending an afternoon visiting the Crazy Horse monument. At the monument we spent our time watching dancers, listening to stories, and strolling through museums of Aboriginal art and artifacts. This was a definite highlight of the trip and I felt as though I had had a great educational and cultural experience on a trip that was supposed to be focused on a race.
    Terrance Goodwill’s visit to our class provided an opportunity for me to ask a lot of questions that went unanswered on my trip this summer. I found it to be a wonderful representation of art, tradition, music and culture. Including events such as these in classes is so important to create authentic learning opportunities for students, especially when we had the opportunity to get up and dance (I’m still so happy I made the rest of the class get up). As you stated in the blog, presentations like these are useful in a number of classes. I could imagine having dancers come into history, social studies, English language arts and music classes.
    If/when I have an opportunity to teach in my own classroom I can foresee attempting to bring presenters such as Terrance Goodwill into my classroom to help educate students. Including Aboriginal presentations helps create a community of respect and equality among students and pride in the Aboriginal culture.

  6. What a great time! This was a very interesting experience, because I had never witnessed a Pow wow dance and I have very little exposure to traditional Native American culture. I feel, as a future educator, that it is imperative that we give our students an equal view of the world that surrounds them. If the aim of the education system is to train productive, law-abiding citizens, it seems logical that we impart to our students a levelled view of the community that they live in. This pertains to all human diversity, as it our duty to properly reflect society as it is and provide an inclusive environment in which our students can flourish. Jennifer Johnston, in her article Inclusive Education: A Model of Equality, notes that "Accommodation is the conscious removal of barriers to education that are related to actual characteristics of students" (116). Inclusion is incredibly important to our students of minority status because that transparency validates the existence of the child, giving them a place and a voice in this society. Removing these barriers by including various traditions and perspectives gives our students a larger lens in which to view the world. Jennifer Johnston also states that the "focus on eliminating barriers to education, and respecting the dignity of individual students" is of paramount importance so that students can eventually self-validate and visualize themselves as members of the community (116). Transparency and visibility is crucial to the validation process; if the students can see themselves reflected in pedagogy and curriculum, chances are that the will be more likely to succeed.

    The ties to physical education and social studies that the Pow wow dance brings is inscrutable, but I am trying to think of ideas of how we could repurpose a lesson like this for something like the sciences and mathematics. The relation to musical pedagogy is also very distinct, as music teachers could utilize something like this to demonstrate timing and beats. As always, mathematics and science poses the greatest challenge when dealing with culturally relevant topics.

    Johnston, J. (2010). Inclusive education: A model of equality. Education Law Journal, 20(2), 107-127. Retrieved from

  7. Never a dull moment! This was boldly demonstrated in the particular class in which the Great Grass Dancer Terence Goodwill attended. Goodwill led many of us in our first pow-wow experience both physically and visually. What a wonderful experience for someone like myself who has very little exposure to traditional Native American culture but is always seeking new experiences such as these. After showing us some of his impressive dancing Terence then led the class in an interactive lesson that taught us both historically and physically about dance. While I speak highly of the dance aspect there was one other facet that interested me more. The drummers/singers that came along were my favorite part. The power in each drum hit and vocal cry out are something of beauty. Something mainstream pop music could take a note from, but that is for another blog posting. There is a simple yet complex beauty in the ability to portray stories, history, pain, lessons, and love through dance. Dance is one of the most beautiful parts of Native American culture. Generations of Native Americans have developed a variety of dances for many different kinds of occasions (
    Something particularly neat about this moment in class was we were in the presence of a world champion dancer, something about this quality upped the authenticity as Terence knew so much about the history involved in what he was doing. As a future educator and influence in the lives of kids it is essential to have my world opened to experiences such as these. Just as my world needs to be in contact with a variety of cultures, especially the ever growing Native American culture, so do the lives of the students I teach. As Stats Canada states the Aboriginal population in Winnipeg is growing and much younger than the non-Aboriginal population ( Incorporating such pow-wow events might look different in a middle year’s class as the maturity or understanding may not be prepared for it. However, it cannot be ignored the vital importance to have ones worldview opened, stretched, and educated of another’s cultural traditions; especially a culture that is ever-present and growing within our community.

  8. The cornerstone to Aboriginal culture can be exemplified through the arts, especially the art of Dance. The arts are a rich and crucial part of Aboriginal culture that encompasses many teachings, lessons and principals to live by and can truly be one of the most beautiful aspects to the culture. Traditional Aboriginal dance varies in expression and style, and as Terrance powerfully articulated that the art of dance can be performed for a plethora of occasions, especially zoning in on ceremonial purposes and dances that convey stories about life, spirituality and culture. Having the Great Grass dancer Terrance Goodwill introduce us to the art of Aboriginal Dance was a glorious experience. Moreover, having two of his companions assist the dance with their talent in music created an atmosphere unlike any other, radiating a sense of holistic education for us. Terrance was a great teacher, and dance artist. It was impeccable to see someone as talented as him, take the time to share his craft with our class, teach us some of the dances and songs, and most importantly, his belief in us. Fortunately, I have had the opportunity once before to experience a Pow Wow which was an exquisite experience, and thus this was one of the most memorable classes.
    As a Physical Education Major, this class demonstrated the multiple facets that can be utilized in a gym class that could connect to Aboriginal education, while still maintaining a physically relevant activity. Dance education teaches the value of creativity, culture and ultimately the raw sense of letting lose. Incorporating Aboriginal culture in the gym is a great way to introduce students to the culture with activity and fun. Although incorporating Aboriginal perspectives in the classroom and gym should also respect Aboriginality, the rights of tradition, and inclusion.
    However, as Manitoba continues to hold the highest numbers of Aboriginals in Canada, “total of 175,395 Aboriginal people lived in Manitoba, representing 15% of the provincial population” it is more important than ever to truly incorporate Aboriginal studies in our schools today for both aboriginals and non-aboriginal students.

  9. I agree with many of the comments posted in regards to this blog. Original I was dreading this class, as I am not a dancer, let alone an aboriginal dancer. Put it this way…dancing is not my thing. However, I thoroughly enjoyed the time spent with Terrance Goodwill, and the drummers from Kenora. Wow, what a wonderful talent they all have. These class fostered enjoyment, classroom community, and content-based learning. Not only did I learn a great deal about pow wow ceremony and dancing, I learnt a tremendous amount of the significance of dancing and drumming in the aboriginal community. And let me tell you, it was a workout! I can’t imagine doing this for numerous hours with no breaks, and no water or food.

    This class, as well as many others throughout the course of this semester in EDUA 1500, has not only taught me about many traits in the aboriginal culture, but what good authentic teaching looks like. Imagine if you, Robert, had just brought in a video of pow wow dancing, or explained aboriginal games, or only shared a recent newspaper article of the North-End of Winnipeg. Mostly liking our learning experience would have not been the same. The style of most of your classes demonstrates that learning doesn’t happen with a pencil and paper and a textbook, and final exam at the end. Learning is much more then that. Somehow we need to being in these hands-on, real life experience into classroom, as children as young as kindergarten or teenagers in grade 12, to adults in university can truly benefit from learning in this type of environment. Pedagogically, I believe this can create good teaching and learning.

  10. First, I must say how impressive it was to watch Terrence Goodwill perform. Aboriginal dancing is certainly a wonderful art form. What surprises me is that more people are not exposed to Pow wow dancing. Winnipeg has a large aboriginal population, and this number is getting larger. Is there a shortage of Pow wow dancers here that more people haven’t been exposed to it? Perhaps people see Pow wow dancing as just an aboriginal cultural event that is not meant for non-aboriginals, so they figure they won’t bother checking it out. I first was exposed to Pow wow and the great dancers that perform in it, when I was in high school. More than once, we had Pow wow dancers come in to perform at my school. I have always been impressed with the agility and physical abilities of Pow wow dancers such as Terrence. Something I have wondered is whether a non-aboriginal person would be accepted to do Pow wow dancing? I know friends who do Ukrainian dancing, but they are not Ukrainian, would the same idea work for Pow wow dancing? Further, let’s say that a non-aboriginal person was accepted to do Pow wow dancing, could he perform at a competition?

    I think that it is a positive thing when aspects of aboriginal culture are used in the mainstream. Things such as aboriginal art, moccasins, and canoes and lacrosse all come from aboriginals. The only thing is that when aspects of a culture are adopted by the mainstream, most people are not aware of the origin of the custom. Perhaps aboriginal people might want to guard their culture from becoming too mainstream, with the risk that it will lose its meaning. It seems that aboriginals want a distinct identity and culture from the mainstream Canadian current, and this is so their customs are not lost. At the same time, trying to be distinct seems to cause isolation of aboriginal culture, customs and issues. Maybe this is why relatively few non-aboriginals have witnessed things like Pow wow dancing. If aboriginals want a more prominent voice in society, are they willing to take their culture mainstream? Is it worth taking aboriginal culture mainstream at the price that it will be watered-down and lose its meaning? These are questions I would really like to ask an aboriginal leader.

  11. The great grass dancer Terrance Goodwill came to the University of Manitoba to share Aboriginal culture and dance to us on October 1st. It was really neat to have this culture and dance shared with our class, and even better that we were able to participate in it. I have never done a grass dance before, but it reminded me of a combination of jump and slide. Jump and slide are two very different and recently popular performance dances. After participating in this session I immediately wanted to learn more, and what the roots of the grass dance are. After reading up on grass dancing, the roots are disputed. Theories are that it came from a reason to gather during the oppression, a way to stomp down grass for vision, or from a story of a boy visioning dancing to gain use of his legs. The story goes that this northern plains boy was born handicapped, but yearned to dance. His medicine man told the boy to seek inspiration in the prairie. While in the prairie, he had a vision of dancing in front of his tribe in a style of the swaying grasses he seeked inspiration from. He went back to his tribe and shared his vision, he was given back the use of his legs through the first ever grass dance.
    I learned that the grass dance is symbolic in the way that it represents the swaying of the prairie grass. It is very symmetric, in that what one does to one side, one must do on the other as well. The movements symbolize a stomping down of grasses, but now the movements are bolder, the kicks higher, and the dancing arena is much larger. Grass dancing is now a huge sporting event, where judges evaluate the dancers performance for pride and prizes.
    For me grass dancing seems to be a way to relieve stress and connect with oneself, not wondering what the dance looks like but how it feels. The dance must feel rhythmic, balanced, and represent symmetry in the mind and body.
    ICTMN STAFF. (2011). Orgins of the Grass Dance. Indian Country: Today Media Retrieved from

  12. It's interesting that you only cite curricular connections to Social Studies and Physical Education in your post. Watching the video, and thinking on the actual class, there are more cross-curricular opportunities than just these two subjects.

    Manitoba Math instruction is divided into four main Strands: Numbers, Patterns & Relationships, Shape & Space, and Statistics & Probability. Numeracy and Number Sense development includes estimation skills – my students could estimate the number of beads on the gear, could estimate the number of movements in a given dance, etc. Patterns & Relationship lessons can be drawn directly from the patterning of the beadwork, to the patterning of the dance moves. Shape and Space applications are drawn from the route a dance takes: which often creates a geometric shape or pattern on the floor. Finally, a math teacher could incorporate Statistics & Probability by collecting and compiling data: “number of times right leg is lifted” “number of times left knee bends”, and so on. Each student in the class could be responsible for observing and recording one movement: not only does this address curricular outcomes, but the measured data brings up the positive memories associated with class.

    Perhaps more connections can be made in English Language Arts than anything else. There are five general Manitoba Math ELA curricular outcomes: “Explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, and experiences”; “Comprehend and respond personally and critically to oral, literary, and media texts”; “Manage ideas and information”; “Enhance the clarity and artistry of communication”; and “Celebrate and build community.” Just reading that list, you can imagine when I'm going with this. Certainly a cultural experience such as a dancer provokes thoughts, ideas, and feelings. Critical response to the oral stories told through dance can be developed. Understanding the artistry of a master dancer to communicate his knowledge allows students to see the artistry in texts and stories, enhancing their own ability to communicate by showing multiple exemplars. I think the community building value of the dance class was apparent. Our class of adults were learning, laughing, and dancing together, the same thing can happen in a school classroom. These general outcomes don't touch on the writing exercises, the poetry that can be created, or the journal responses to the dance sessions. The opportunities in ELA are endless.

    Integration into the Science unit is a little less clear, at least for me – where Science instruction has always looked one specific way: Read a chapter, answer questions, perform a lab experiment following precise steps, record data, write a lab report, repeat. (No wonder I choose economics, the so-called dismal science, over traditional sciences in University). This isn't to say that there aren't curricular connections ready to be made in the Manitoba Science Curriculum. Grade 5, Cluster 1: “Maintaining a Healthy Body” - using dance as a means to promote health is fun and effective. Grade 5, Cluster 3 “Forces and Simple Machines” - there's a lot of force in Terrance's dance, and the body is rife with simple machines working in cooperation. Grade 7, Cluster 1: “Interactions within Ecosystems” - dance can show how different organisms within an ecosystem cooperate and compete, it doesn't hurt putting an experience of dance to enhance student understanding – especially those students who are kinesthetic learners.

    There you have it – the four core courses can each build on the experience of a cultural dance demonstration in the classroom. Not to mention the obvious connections to music and art. So thanks Robert for your help in planning my next teaching unit.

  13. When Terrance Goodwill came to the University of Manitoba on October 1st 2013 I was expecting to sit and watch him perform the different types of grass dances. Little did I know I would be also partaking in some grass dances myself and loved it even though my moves were well below average. Terrance was not only a master of the grass dance but also very informative on the different types and traditional uses of the dances, he also has a great sense of humor. As we watched and danced I thought of how these dances could be used in a high school class. I thought how the culture, teachings and background could be used to help expand the minds of students today and give them more insight into aboriginal culture and traditions. I reflected back to my time in high school and how much of my knowledge of aboriginal education came from social studies classes and history classes. This type of learning only caters to specific types of learners (visual and auditory) while our kinesthetic type learners are left fidgeting in their desks. I believe by incorporating these types of dances into social studies, history, and physical education classes it will only help students learn. Students could learn the traditional use and cultural importance of the dances in their social studies and history classes. They will get to understand why these dances are important and expand their own thinking and knowledge on aboriginal traditions and culture. Then after they have learned the significance of these dances they get to become one of the dancers and feel the beat. They will have a chance to perform the different types of dances and expand upon their knowledge while having fun in the process. I believe this would be an excellent way for students to learn about aboriginal culture while catering to the many different learning types.

  14. I don't think the persons behind this law are parent's or had ever been a biological parent. how can you separate a child from his/her biological parent, does anyone ever realize the impact of this to a child, specially to those kids who bonded with parents despite poverty. My friends child, Lala Shimonko Henriques had been taken away from her and she's breast feeding her baby , Jack. Did anyone ever thought of the mother's despair and childs emotional stability being taken away from his Mom at 6mos old. Clearly the people behind this law can't see the impact it can bring to a child. Given that there are parent's who can hardly provide to their kids but is it right to just take the child away from a parent without digging deeper into that person's ability to take care of her/his own child? My friends kid's life had been very transparent in public via social media (instagram/facebook) and obviously she's doing a good job takign care of her child, why take him away from her? Does anyone ever recognise it's effect to her baby? She's breastfeeding. And for God's sake, you are hurtingthe mother and the child and it's not something anyone can compensate financially. This is just absurd!!!!!

  15. * never compensate financially

  16. I don't think the persons behind this law are parent's or had ever been a biological parent. How can you separate a child from his/her biological parent, does anyone ever realize the impact of this to a child, specially to those kids who , from birth had been under parent's care, despite poverty. Mycousin's child, Lalonnie Henriques had been taken away from her and she's breast feeding her baby , Jack. Did anyone ever thought of the mother's despair and childs emotional stability when he wastaken away from his Mom at 6mos old. Clearly the people behind this law can't see the impact it can bring to a child. Given that there are parent who can hardly provide to their kids but is it not right to just take a child away from a parent without digging deeper into that person's ability to take care of her/his own child My cousin's kid's life had been very transparent in public via social media (instagram/facebook) and obviously she's doing a good job taking care of her child, why take him away from her? Does anyone ever recognise it's effect to her baby? She's breastfeeding. And for God's sake, you are hurting the mother and the child and it's not something that anyone can ever compensate financially. This is just absurd!!!!!


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